neeLa's Fish


hhm.akhir-akhir ini saya sangat tertarik dan berminat dengan si'piano prince'

der, sher, kev.: "Friends and Me"

1. Morfologi

Koloni dari kapang Trichoderma berwarna putih, kuning, hijau muda, dan hijau tua. Dijelaskan lebih lanjut bahwa kultur kapang Trichoderma viride pada skala laboratorium berwarna hijau, hal ini disebabkan oleh adanya kumpulan konidia pada ujung hifa kapang tersebut. Susunan sel kapang Trichoderma bersel banyak berderet membentuk benang halus yang disebut dengan hifa. Hifa pada jamur ini berbentuk pipih, bersekat, dan bercabang-cabang membentuk anyaman yang disebut miselium. Miseliumnya dapat tumbuh dengan cepat dan dapat memproduksi berjuta-juta spora, karena sifatnya inilah Trichoderma dikatakan memiliki daya kompetitif yang tinggi. Dalam pertumbuhannya, bagian permukaan akan terlihat putih bersih, dan bermiselium kusam. Setelah dewasa, miselium memiliki warna hijau kekuningan.

Kapang ini memiliki bagian yang khas antara lain miselium berseptat, bercabang banyak, konidia spora berseptat dan cabang yang paling ujung berfungsi sebagai sterigma. Konidiofornya bercabang berbentuk verticillate. Pada bagian ujung konidiofornya tumbuh sel yang bentuknya menyerupai botol (fialida), sel ini dapat berbentuk tunggal maupun berkelompok. Konidianya berwarna hijau cerah bergerombol membentuk menjadi seperti bola dan berkas-berkas hifa terlihat menonjol jelas diantara konidia spora. Trichoderma berkembangbiak secara aseksual dengan membentuk spora di ujung fialida atau cabang dari hifa.


2. Fisiologi

Trichoderma adalah salah satu jamur tanah yang tersebar luas (kosmopolitan), yang hampir dapat ditemui di lahan-lahan pertanian dan perkebunan. Trichoderma bersifat saprofit pada tanah, kayu, dan beberapa jenis bersifat parasit pada jamur lain. Trichoderma viride merupakan jenis yang paling banyak dijumpai diantara genusnya dan mempunyai kelimpahan yang tinggi pada tanah dan bahan yang mengalami dekomposisi.

Pada spesies saprofit, kapang tumbuh pada kisaran suhu optimal 22-30°C. Sedangkan menurut Enari (1983), suhu optimal untuk pertumbuhan kapang ini adalah 32-35°C dan pH optimal sekitar 4.0.

Trichoderma viride adalah salah satu jenis jamur yang bersifat selulolitik karena dapat menghasilkan selulase. Banyak kapang yang bersifat selulolitik tetapi tidak banyak yang menghasilkan enzim selulase yang cukup banyak untuk dapat dipakai secara langsung tanpa sel bagi usaha dalam skala besar. Kapang selulolitik yang cukup baik memproduksi enzim selulolitik adalah Trichoderma viride. Trichoderma viride bisa juga dikatakan sebagai mikroorganisme yang mampu menghancurkan selulosa tingkat tinggi dan memiliki kemampuan mensintesis beberapa faktor esensial untuk melarutkan bagian selulosa yang terikat kuat dengan ikatan hidrogen. Ada juga yang mengatakan bahwa Trichoderma viride merupakan jamur yang potensial memproduksi selulase dalam jumlah yang relatif banyak untuk mendegradasi selulosa. Trichoderma viride merupakan kelompok jamur selulolitik yang dapat menguraikan glukosa dengan menghasilkan enzim kompleks selulase. Enzim ini berfungsi sebagai agen pengurai yang spesifik untuk menghidrolisis ikatan kimia dari selulosa dan turunannya. Trichoderma viride dan Trichoderma reesei merupakan kelompok jamur tanah sebagai penghasil selulase yang paling efisien. Enzim selulase yang dihasilkan Trichoderma viride mempunyai kemampuan dapat memecah selulosa menjadi glukosa sehingga mudah dicerna oleh ternak. Selain itu Trichoderma viride mempunyai kemampuan meningkatkan protein bahan pakan dan pada bahan berselulosa dapat merangsang dikeluarkannya enzim selulase.

Keuntungan jamur tersebut sebagai sumber selulase adalah menghasilkan selulase lengkap dengan semua komponen-komponen yang dibutuhkan untuk hidrolisis total selulosa kristal dan protein selulosa yang dihasilkan cukup tinggi. Jenis Trichoderma viride yang diketahui dapat menghasilkan enzim selulase yang sangat baik adalah jenis QM 9414 dan QM 9124 yang telah dikembangkan di Laboratorium Natick Masaschucetts USA.

Miselium Trichoderma dapat menghasilkan suatu enzim yang bermacam-macam, termasuk enzim selulase (pendegradasi selulosa) dan kitinase (pendegradsi kitin). Oleh karena adanya enzim selulase, Trichoderma dapat tumbuh secara langsung di atas kayu yang terdiri atas selulosa sebagai polimer dari glukosa. Oleh karena adanya kitinase, Trichoderma dapat bersifat sebagai parasit bagi jamur yang lainnya. Secara alami seseorang dapat sering menemukan Trichoderma yang menjadi parasit pada badan buah dan miselia dari jamur yang lain, seperti badan buah dari Hydnochaete.

Trichoderma viride adalah penghasil enzim selulolitik yang sangat efisien, terutama enzim yang mampu menghidrolisis kristal selulosa. Trichoderma viride banyak digunakan dalam penelitian karena memiliki beberapa keuntungan, dinataranya adalah :

1. Selulase yang diperoleh mengandung semua komponen-komponen yang diperlukan untuk proses hidrolisis seluruh kristal selulosa.

2. Protein selulase dihasilkan dalam kualitas sangat tinggi.

Selain mempunyai keuntungan, Trichoderma viride juga memiliki kerugian, yaitu:

1. Tidak dapat mendegradasi lignin.

2. Selulase yang dihasilkan mempunyai aktivitas spesifik yang rendah.

3. β–glukosidase yang dihasilkan mempunyai level yang rendah.

Selulase yang dihasilkan oleh Trichoderma viride mengandung komponen terbesar berupa selobiase dan β-1,4-glukan-selobiohidrolase (C1), sementara β-1,4-glukan-selobiohidrolase (Cx) terdapat dalam jumlah kecil. Selulase yang diproduksi mengandung asam-asam amino tertentu, yaitu :

1. Golongan asam amino yang bersifat asam : aspartat dan glutamat.

2. Golongan asam amino polar : serin, treonin, dan glisin.

3. Sebagian kecil asam amino dasar.

4. Sebagian kecil golongan asam amino sulfur.

Semua enzim ini bersifat hidrolitik dan bekerja baik secara berturut-turut atau bersamaan. Selobiohidrolase adalah enzim yang mempunyai afinitas terhadap selulosa tingkat tinggi yang mampu memecah selulosa kristal. Sedangkan endoglukanase bekerja pada selulosa amorf. Selanjutnya dijelaskan selobiohidrolase memecah selulosa melalui pemotongan ikatan hidrogen yang menyebabkan rantai-rantai glokosa mudah untuk dihidrolisis lebih lanjut. Hidrolisa selanjutnya berlangsung sehingga diperoleh selobiosa dan akhirnya glukosa dilakukan oleh enzim β–glukonase dan β–glukosidase.


3. Ekologi

Trichoderma spp. dapat ditemui di hampir semua jenis tanah dan pada berbagai habitat. Jamur ini dapat berkembang biak dengan cepat pada daerah perakaran. Di samping itu Trichoderma spp. merupakan jamur parasit yang dapat menyerang dan mengambil nutrisi dari jamur lain. Peranan Trichoderma spp. yang mampu menyerang jamur lain namun sekaligus berkembang baik pada daerah perakaran menjadikan keberadaan jamur ini dapat berperan sebagai biocontrol dan memperbaiki pertumbuhan tanaman. Beberapa species Trichoderma seperti T. harzianum, T. viride dan T. album, telah diteliti peranannya sebagai bio-control. A. nidulans termasuk dalam jenis Aspergillus dan mampu berkembang biak dengan cepat dalam membentuk filamen-filamen jamur baik dalam media cair maupun media padat dan pada berbagai kandungan nutrisi (Setyowati, dkk, 2003). Aspergillus dapat ditemukan pada tanah, sampah dan di udara. Aspergillus dapat menyebabkan infeksi, alergi atau keracunan baik pada tumbuhan, hewan maupun manusia (Setyowati, dkk, 2003).


4. Taksonomi

Klasifikasi kapang Trichoderma viride adalah sebagai berikut ini :

Kingdom Fungi

Divisio Amastigomycota

Subdiviso Deuteromycotina

Classis Deuteromycetes

Ordo Moniliales

Family Moniliaceae

Genus Trichoderma

Species Trichoderma viride


5. Peranan dalam Lingkungan

Trichoderma adalah jamur penghuni tanah yang dapat diisolasi dari perakaran tanaman lapangan. Spesies Trichoderma disamping sebagai organisme pengurai, dapat pula berfungsi sebagai agen hayati dan stimulator pertumbuhan tanaman. Beberapa spesies Trichoderma telah dilaporkan sebagai agensia hayati adalah T. Harzianum, T. Viridae, dan T. Konigii yang berspektrum luas pada berbagai tanaman pertanian. Biakan jamur Trichoderma dalam media aplikatif seperti dedak dapat diberikan ke areal pertanaman dan berlaku sebagai biodekomposer, yaitu dapat mendekomposisi limbah organik (rontokan dedaunan dan ranting tua) menjadi kompos yang bermutu. Selain itu, Trichoderma dapat juga digunakan sebagai biofungisida, dimana Trichoderma mempunyai kemampuan untuk dapat menghambat pertumbuhan beberapa jamur penyebab penyakit pada tanaman antara lain Rigidiforus lignosus, Fusarium oxysporum, Rizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, dll.

Saat ini, Trichoderma merupakan salah satu mikroorganisme fungsional yang dikenal luas sebagai pupuk biologis tanah. Pupuk biologis Trichoderma dapat dibuat dengan inokulasi biakan murni pada media aplikatif, misalnya dedak. Sedangkan biakan murni dapat dibuat melalui isolasi dari perakaran tanaman, serta dapat diperbanyak dan diremajakan kembali pada media PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar).

Trichoderma sering kali menjadi masalah tertentu di dalam industri penanaman jamur, di mana Trichoderma dapat menjadi parasit pada miselium dan badan buah dari jamur lain. Ketika jamur lain menjadi inang parasit Trichoderma, kemudian berkembang sangat cepat di permukaan membentuk koloni yang berwarna hijau, sehingga membuat jamur menjadi buruk dan mengubah bentuk jamur lain.

Kapang Trichoderma viride juga digunakan untuk meningkatkan nilai manfaat jerami padi melalui fermentasi, karena jamur ini mempunyai sifat selulolitik dan mengeluarkan enzim selulase yang dapat merombak selulosa menjadi selubiosa hingga akhirnya menjadi glukosa.

Proses yang terjadi ketika jerami padi difermentasi menggunakan Trichoderma viride adalah terjadinya degradasi terhadap dinding sel yang diselaputi oleh lignin, selulosa dan hemiselulosa. Akibat degradasi ini maka sebagian lignin akan terdegradasi. Selulosa dan hemiselulosa juga akan terurai menjadi glukosa.


CLAUSE, SENTENCE and PHRASE




In trying to understand what is written in an article, it is very important to know where a sentence start and where it end.

* A CLAUSE is a group of word containing a subject and a verb.

For example :

a) Five plants of each variety were inoculated with each isolate (Yamamoto et al.)

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 64)

The analysis of which would be :

Five plants of each variety were inoculated with each isolate

Subject Verbal

(Yamamoto et al)

b) A total of 117 isolates of Xoo, 81 from West Java, 221 from Central Java and 15 from Yogyakarta, were isolated.

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 65)

The analysis of which would be :



A total of 117 isolates of Xoo, 81 from West Java, 221 from Central Java and 15 from Yogyakarta,


Subject

were isolated


Verbal

* A SENTENCE may consist of one or more clauses.

For example :

a) Analysis of leaf P concentration was initiated by cleaning the leaves with tissue and dried

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 96)

The analysis of which would be :

Analysis of leaf P concentration was initiated by cleaning the

Subject verbal

leaves with tissue and dried.

b) The variables on each variety were presented as the mean disease severity of each bacterial isolate

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 65)

The analysis of which would be :

The variables on each variety were presented as the mean

Subject verbal

disease severity of each bacterial isolate

c) The data also showed that bacterial pathotypes III and VIII developed across elevation, while pathotype III only developed in low elevation in West Java.

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 65)

The analysis of which would be :

The data also showed that bacterial pathotypes III and VIII

Subject 1 verbal 1 Subject 2

Developed across elevation, while pathotype III only developed in

Verbal 2 Subject 3 Verbal 3

low elevation in West Java.

A PHRASE is a group of words lacking either a subject or a verb.

Some examples are:

* nominal phrase:

Other study by Sumner (1979) revealed that during 10 month observation, P concentration was decreasing about 24-32%.

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 98)

* verbal phrase:

Leaf nutrient concentration was investigated on the mangosteen orchard at Bogor, Tasikmalaya, and Purwakarta, West Java.

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 98)

* adjectival phrase:

Since the dominance of IR 36 was replaced by Cisadane due to its susceptibility to the brown planthopper, the occurrence of the disease was less.

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 65)

* adverbial phrase:

The data also showed that bacterial pathotypes III and VIII developed across elevation, while pathotype III only developed in low elevation in West Java.

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 65)



Text Box: ALWAYS REMEMBER THAT:    A CLAUSE CONTAINS ONE SUBJECT + ONE VERBAL   A PHRASE DOES NOT CONTAIN A SUBJECT-VERBAL   A SENTENCE CONTAINS AT LEAST ONE CLAUSE



CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE


In English, both general and academic, words like like WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT, WHOSE, WHERE, WHEN OF WHOM, OF WHICH and many more are used to refer to something that have been said before, or to what is going to be said.

Some examples are :

1. Some approaches in determining fertilizer requirements on plants which can be applied properly are soil analysis

Soil analysis is commonly used asmanagement tool on seasonal plants, such as tomato, maize, and legumes.

Source : “CORRELATION TEST OF LEAF PHOSPHORUS

NUTRIENT WITH MANGOSTEEN PRODUCTION1)

Indonesian Journal of Agriculture 1(2), 2008: 95

If the two clauses are joined together, we can have the following sentences:

a. Some approaches in determining fertilizer requirements on plants which can be applied properly are soil analysis which is commonly used asmanagement tool on seasonal plants, such as tomato, maize, and legumes.

b. Some approaches in determining fertilizer requirements on plants which can be applied properly are soil analysis that is commonly used asmanagement tool on seasonal plants, such as tomato, maize, and legumes.

.

Analysis:

Some approaches in determining fertilizer requirements on plants which can be

Oval: Which That

applied properly are soil analysis is commonly used asmanagement


tool on seasonal plants, such as tomato, maize, and legumes.

Example 2

The difference in soil P availability and pH of each location caused P uptake difference by plant. This was indicated by soil P concentration of Purwakarta which was higher than that of Tasikmalaya and Bogor. Leaf P concentration of Purwakarta was




much higher than that of Tasikmalaya and Bogor. The more availability of soil P, the higher nutrient uptake by plant.

Source : “CORRELATION TEST OF LEAF PHOSPHORUS NUTRIENT WITH MANGOSTEEN PRODUCTION1)

Indonesian Journal of Agriculture 1(2), 2008: 98

Example 3

1. Similar pathotype groups were found in Subang and surroundings

Pathotype III, IV and VIII were identified in Subang and surroundings

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 65)

If the two clauses are joined together, we can have the following sentences:

a. Similar pathotype groups were found in Subang and surroundings where

pathotype III, IV and VIII were identified

b. Similar pathotype groups were found in Subang and surroundings in which pathotype III, IV and VIII were identified

c. Similar pathotype groups were found in Subang and surroundings which

pathotype III, IV and VIII were identified

d. Similar pathotype groups were found in Subang and surroundings that

pathotype III, IV and VIII were identified

.

Analysis:

Similar pathotype groups were found in Subang and surroundings where




pathotype III, IV and VIII were identified

Similar pathotype groups were found in Subang and surroundings at which




pathotype III, IV and VIII were identified

1 ATTRBUTES SIMILARITY : ONE ATTRIBUTE - > 1 SUBJECTS " v:shapes="_x0000_s1172" height="79" width="78">

Similar pathotype groups were found in Subang and surroundings which

that




pathotype III, IV and VIII were identified at

IN A TEXT CONSISTING OF MORE THAN ONE PARAGRAPH:

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Results of soil chemical analyses showed that soil N, P, and K concentrations at three locations were 0.15-0.09%, 1.68-1.02%, and 0.24-0.20%, respectively (Table 2). These values were categorized as very low till low based on criteria developed by Indonesian Center for Soil Research. Soil N, P, and K concentration at Purwakarta were






higher than those at Tasikmalaya and Bogor and it decreased with increasing soil depth. The same results were reported by Lestari (2003), the deeper soil sampling, the more decreased N, P, and K concentration was obtained. Cation exchange capacity value of the three locations were 19.10-12.95 me/ 100 g or categorized as low-moderate. Soil pH of the three locations were 4.27-4.74










which were classified as very acid till acid. Soil analysis showed that

Soil pH of Purwakarta increased with raising soil depth, while those of Tasikmalaya and Bogor decreased.

The difference in soil P availability and pH of each location caused P uptake difference by plant. This was indicated by soil P concentration of Purwakarta which was higher than that of Tasikmalaya and Bogor. Leaf P concentration of Purwakarta was much higher than that of Tasikmalaya and Bogor. The more availability of soil P, the higher nutrient uptake by plant.

Result of leaf analysis could be used to predict soil nutrient concentration if the leaf nutrient concentration had high correlation with soil nutrient. The test result showed that P concentration in leaf had significantly correlated with P concentration in soil. Correlation coefficient of leaf P concentration at 4 month leaf age with soil P concentration was 0.794, whereas correlation coefficient at 5 month leaf age with soil P concentration was 0.756. Leaf P concentration would increase with increasing soil P availability (Figure 2).

Based on linear quotient above, soil P concentration could be estimated. Increasing P concentration 0.1% at 4 month leaf age, soil P availability was required 0.54 ppm. Whereas at leaf of 5 month age, soil P availability was required 0.62 ppm.

Source : “CORRELATION TEST OF LEAF PHOSPHORUS NUTRIENT WITH MANGOSTEEN PRODUCTION1)

Indonesian Journal of Agriculture 1(2), 2008: 98


DEFINITION and DESCRIPTION


In writing an article on agriculture, anyway in writing any article, the writer sometimes needs to define a term he is going to use throughout his article, and he might even feel it necessary to define a process by describing the course of action(s) it involves. In this chapter you are shown how to make a fine definition or description.

PART ONE: DEFINITION


Defining a part of a plant involves three things, namely:

naming it;

stating the class it belongs to; and

describing its function.

Some example are :

Example One

Plant tissue analysis is more practical to determine nutrient status on mangosteen plant than other methods. Nutrient status in plant tissue is also represent nutrient status in soil. This is based on principle that nutrient concentration in plant is a result of interaction of all factors influencing absorption of the nutrients from soil.

Source : CORRELATION TEST OF LEAF PHOSPHORUS NUTRIENT WITH MANGOSTEEN PRODUCTION1)

Indonesian Journal of Agriculture 1(2), 2008: 95

Name : Plant tissue analysis

Class : more practical

Function : to determine nutrient status on mangosteen plant than other methods.

Definition : Plant tissue analysis is more practical to determine nutrient status on mangosteen plant than other methods.

Plant tissue generally analyzed is leaf. Leaf is a place where photosynthesis process and other metabolism actively occur. Leaf is also the place for carbohydrate and mineral storage. Nutrients in leaves not only have a role in photosynthesis but also represent plant nutrient status. Leaves also consist of tissues which always available for analysis of plant nutrient status.

Source : CORRELATION TEST OF LEAF PHOSPHORUS NUTRIENT WITH MANGOSTEEN PRODUCTION1)

Indonesian Journal of Agriculture 1(2), 2008: 95

Name : Leaf

Class : a place

Function : where photosynthesis process and other metabolism actively occur.

Definition : Leaf is a place where photosynthesis process and other metabolism actively occur.

Now assume that A = name ; B = Class ; and C = function. Notice how definitions using scientific English can be formulated as A – B – C or as B – C – A













Text Box: is/are may be defined as



Text Box: which

A



B



C
















Text Box: is/are called is/are known as


Text Box: which

B



C



A




Example one


A

B

C


Plant tissue analysis

more practical

to determine nutrient status on mangosteen plant than other methods

Definition :

1.

Plant tissue analysis is more practical which to determine nutrient status on mangosteen plant than other methods.

2.

Plant tissue analysis may be defined as more practical which to determine nutrient status on mangosteen plant than other methods.

3.

More practical which to determine nutrient status on mangosteen plant than other methods.is called Plant tissue analysis

4.

More practical which to determine nutrient status on mangosteen plant than other methods.is known as plant tissue analysis

Example two


A

B

C


Leaf

A place

where photosynthesis process and other metabolism actively occur.

Definition :

1.

Leaf is a place which where photosynthesis process and other metabolism actively occur

2.

Leaf may be defined as a place which where photosynthesis process and other metabolism actively occur

3.

A place which where photosynthesis process and other metabolism actively occur.is called leaf

4.

A place which where photosynthesis process and other metabolism actively occur.is known as leaf

Source : CORRELATION TEST OF LEAF PHOSPHORUS NUTRIENT WITH MANGOSTEEN PRODUCTION1)

Indonesian Journal of Agriculture 1(2), 2008: 95

PART TWO: DESCRIPTION


Processes can be explained by defining what happens during their course of action, or by using a general statement. Pay close attention to the folloeing example.

Example:

NAME OF PROCESS

DESCRIPTION OF COURSE OF ACTION

Hyperhydricity

describes an abnormal condition morphologicially and physiologicially on herbaceous and woody plants which the described in vitro including vegetative propagation (Debergh et al.1981).

Definition a:

Hyperhydricity is the process whereby describes an abnormal condition morphologicially and physiologicially on herbaceous and woody plants which the described in vitro including vegetative propagation (Debergh et al.1981).

Definition b:

Hyperhydricity is the process by which describes an abnormal condition morphologicially and physiologicially on herbaceous and woody plants which the described in vitro including vegetative propagation (Debergh et al.1981).

General Statement:

In the process of hyperhydricity, describes an abnormal condition morphologicially and physiologicially on herbaceous and woody plants which the described in vitro including vegetative propagation (Debergh et al.1981).

Source : Effect of Preamble Vessel Closure and Gelling Agent on Reduction Of Hyperhydricity In In Vitro Culture Of Carnation

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(1) 2004: 14)

In short:

The paragraphs usually star with a definition.

The definition is then explained in the following sentences of the paragraph.


IMPERSONAL PASSIVES


When the writer wants to bring into prominence the thing to which the action is being done, he will use the passive in which the thing is put at the beginning of the sentence.

Examine the following active and passive sentence, and note that the passive sentences contain some form of the verb to be a past participle.

Following are five example to show you the difference in form between an active and a passive form of a sentence.


ACTIVE

PASSIVE

1.

Smallholders produce most of the cocoa beans

Most of the cocoa beans are produced by smallholders

2.

The change of environmental growth (temperature and humidity) and nutrient availability in acclimatization media influenced the leaf browing

The leaf browing was most probably influenced by changing environmental growth (temperature and humidity) and nutrient availability in acclimatization media.

3.

Means of colorimetry follow this

This can be followed by means of colorimetry

4.

The yellowing leaf shows infected tree

Infected tree is showed by yellowing leaf

5.

P. noxius causing the disease

The disease is caused by P. noxius.

Source : Colorimetric measurements of cocoa beans

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 3(2) 2002: 55)

Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 1(2) 2008: 95)

Notice that in example 4, ‘the whole population’ is the OBJECTS in the active sentences and have became the SUBJECTS of the passive ones.

Note also that the verbal of the passives sentences comprise ‘to be’ + ‘past participle’:


ACTIVE

PASSIVE

Sentence 1

are

produced

Sentence 2

was

influenced

Sentence 3

be

followed

Sentence 4

is

showed

Sentence 5

is

Caused

Generally, passive sentences in scientific writings are characterized by the lack of a “by” phrase. This is assumed to be related to the fact that what is important to the development in science is what has been found out and not so much who found out.


PARALLEL STRUCTURE & PAIRED

CONJUNCTION


A. PARALLEL STRUCTURE

One use of a conjunction is to connect words or phrase that have the same grammatical function in a sentence. This use of conjunctions is called PARALLEL STRUCTURE. The single conjunctions used in this pattern are, among others, AND, BUT, OR, and NOR. They are also rteffered to coordinating conjunctions.

Study the following four examples on the usage of single conjunction!

1. Diseased roots were freed from sand

Diseased roots were freed from soil particles

Source : Brown Root Disease Of Casew in West Nusa Tenggara : Distribution and Its casual Organism

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(1) 2004: 32-36)

Analysis:

Oval: ANDDiseased roots were freed from . sand

Diseased roots were freed from soil particles

The actors are different. The activities in the two clauses are the same. The two clauses can be made into one new sentence using a parallel structure. Remember that because the activities are the same in the two clause, the activity can only be mentioned once in the new sentence. The result will be:

Diseased roots were freed from


sand and soil particles

2. Nairn et al. (1995) reported that high purity of gelling agent indicated non-toxic

Nairn et al. (1995) resulted hyperhydric tissues

Source : Effect of Preamble Vessel Closure and Gelling Agent on Reduction Of Hyperhydricity In In Vitro Culture Of Carnation

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(1) 2004: 14)

Analysis:

Oval: BUTNairn et al. (1995) reported that high purity of gelling agent indicated non-toxic

Nairn et al. (1995) resulted hyperhydric tissues

The activities are different. The actors in the two clauses are the same. The two clauses can be made into one new sentence using a parallel structure. Remember that because the actors are the same in the two clause, the actor can only be mentioned once in the new sentence. Logic shows that the conjunction is but. The result will be:

Nairn et al. (1995) reported that high purity of gelling agent indicated non-toxic but

resulted hyperhydric tissues

  1. The bacterial pathotype VIII was dominant in West Java

The bacterial pathotype VIII was dominant in Central Java

The bacterial pathotype VIII was dominant in Yogyakarta

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 65)

Analysis:




Oval:  The bacterial pathotype VIII was dominant in West Java

,

Oval:  The bacterial pathotype VIII was dominant in Central Java

, AND

The bacterial pathotype VIII was dominant in Yogyakarta

The activities are different. The actors in the two clauses are the same. The two clauses can be made into one new sentence using a parallel structure. Remember that because the actors are the same in the two clause, the actor can only be mentioned once in the new sentence. The result will be:

The bacterial pathotype VIII was dominant in West Java, Central Java, and Yogyakarta.

  1. The structures of bacterial pathotypes of Xoo in Java were dominated by pathotype VIII, in low elevation rice growing areas.

The structures of bacterial pathotypes of Xoo in Java were dominated by pathotype VIII, in medium elevation rice growing areas.

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 68)

Analysis :

The structures of bacterial pathotypes of Xoo in In low

Oval:  Java were dominated by pathotype VIII,

OR

The structures of bacterial pathotypes of Xoo in in medium

Java were dominated by pathotype VIII,

The activities are different. The actors in the two clauses are the same. The two clauses can be made into one new sentence using a parallel structure. Remember that because the actors are the same in the two clause, the actor can only be mentioned once in the new sentence. Note that part of the activity is the same: “was seen as”. Therefore “was seen as” can only be mentioned once. Logic shows that the conjunction is or. The result will be:

The structures of bacterial pathotypes of Xoo in Java were dominated by pathotype VIII, in low or in medium elevation rice growing areas.

B. PAIRED CONJUNCTION

In section A above you are shown how single conjunctions can be used to join two or more clauses into one new sentence. In English you can find paired cojunctions carrying the same function as single ones. Some examples of paired conjunctions are:

BOTH … AND …

NOT ONLY … BUT … ALSO

Study the following examples to see how paired conjunctions are used.

1.

Concentration of BA di not show differences in all parameters in all parameters observed

Concentration of NNA di not show differences in all parameters in all parameters observed

Analysis:




Concentration of of BA di not show differences in all parameters in all

parameters observed




Concentration of of NNA di not show differences in all parameters in all

parameters observed

In this case we can use the single conjunction and.

Paired cojunctions having the same meaning as and an the positive sense are:

● Both A and B

● Not only A but also B; and

● Not only A but B as well.

Thus the new sentence can be:

1. Both concentration of BA and concentration of NNA di not show differences in all parameters in all parameters observed

2. Not only concentration of BA but alsoconcentration of NNA di not show differences in all parameters in all parameters observed.

3. Not only concentration of BA but concentration of NNA di not show differences in all parameters in all parameters observed.

Source : Effect of Premeble Vessel Closon And its Causal Organism.ure and icity In In Vitro Culture

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(1) 2004: 16)

Example II :

The lower in both diversity and numbers for each pathotype in Central Java and Yogyakarta as compared to those in West Java might correspond to the diversity of the rice cultivars planted and the samples collected.

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 68)

Analysis :

The lower in both diversity and numbers for each pathotype in Central Java and Yogyakarta as compared to those in West Java might correspond to the diversity of the rice cultivars planted and the samples collected.

Oval: TO MAKE A PARALLEL STRUCTURE, ONE CAN USE A:  ● SINGLE CONJUNCTION ● PAIRED CONJUNCTION

Horizontal Scroll: CHAPTER  SIX

RELATIONSHIP SHOWING TIME


In a procedure text, the description of processes makes use of words or phrases such as first[ly], then, the next step, the next stage, subsequently, finally to introduce each stage. Study the following paragraph on course of experiment.

A. AT SENTENCE LEVEL

· AFTER, BEFORE, WHEN, AS SOON AS, WHILE

Example :

v AFTER

Samplling were conducted based on the random sampling method, on crops of 40 days after transplanting (DAT) to approaching maturity, as the disease usually develops well in these plant groth stage.

Source : Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates From The Rice Ecosystem in Java

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 64)

v WHILE

Correlation test aims to determine the best relationship between nutrient content in leaves at certain age and yield, while calibration test purposes to find relationship between nutrient content intervals in leaves and plant responses, especially yield parameters (Kidder 1993).

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 96

v THEN

Leaf samples were taken at 2 months after flush and then periodically up to 10 months. Observations were done for number of open flower, number of dropped flower, and number as well as weight of fruit per plant.

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 97

UNTIL

There is something very special in the usage of the word UNTIL. In a parallel structur, UNTIL is always used in a paired conjunction. How is it used?

EXAMPLE UNTIL

Leaves from 22 mangosteen trees of each location (Bogor, Purwakarta, and Tasikmalaya) were taken every month. The leaves were taken at 2 month old and periodically every month until 10 months. The leaf samples were taken from four directions (west, east, north, and south), 3-4 leaves each of central branches of each tree, then the leaves were gathered.

Source : “CORRELATION TEST OF LEAF PHOSPHORUS NUTRIENT WITH MANGOSTEEN PRODUCTION”

Indonesian Journal of Agriculture 1(2), 2008: 96

THEN, DURING, IF

1.

Poovarodom et al. (2000) also reported that there was a decrease in leaf P concentration on durian during growth season. Increase in leaf P concentration was only obtained after fertilizer application after harvest.

2.

As shown in Figure 1, if leaf sample was taken at 2 month age, leaf P concentration at the three locations would be high, but with delaying 1 month on leaf sampling (3 month leaf age), P concentration decreased, even at Bogor P concentration sharply decreased.

3.

Other study by Sumner (1979) revealed that during 10 month observation, P concentration was decreasing about 24-32%.

4.

Leaf samples were taken at 2 months after flush and then periodically up to 10 months. Observations were done for number of open flower, number of dropped flower, and number as well as weight of fruit per plant

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 95-102

A. AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL

Rewrite the following paraghraph placing the proper time expressions in the appropriate places.

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a fruit in Indonesia

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is considered as Indonesia’s export supreme fruit

However, many marketed mangosteens produce from inappropriate cultivated plants resulting in low productivity and quality

Average productivity of Indonesian mangosteen is about 30-70 kg/tree,

[Use the time expressions: FIRSTLY, THEN, and FINALLY.]

Answer:

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a fruit in Indonesia

Firstly, Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is considered as Indonesia’s export supreme fruit.

Then However, many marketed mangosteens produce from inappropriate cultivated plants resulting in low productivity and quality

Finally the ovary itself usually becomes what we call the fruit.

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 95-102


RELATIONSHIP SHOWING

CONSEQUENCE


The relationship showing cause and effect between two English clauses is generally shown by conjunctions like consequently, therefore, thus, since, and so, as a result, and hence.

The conjunctions showing a relationship of consequence can be divided into two groups depending on the type of clause it precedes. Study the following table.

BEGINNING A CAUSE CLAUSE

BEGINNING A RESULT CLAUSE

as

since

because

if

due to the fact that

considering that

etc.

consequently

therefore

thus

and so

hence

as a result

as a consequence

etc.

Study the following couple of sentences.

The relationship of consequence can be shown in many ways, among others are:


The fungus was re-isolated from the diseased wood

It is confirmed that P.noxius is the casual agent of the brown root ro disease of casew

Analysis:

Cause clause : The fungus was re-isolated from the diseased wood

Result clause : It is confirmed that P.noxius is the casual agent of the brown root ro disease of casew

way one

The fungus was re-isolated from the diseased wood, and so it is confirmed that P.noxius is the casual agent of the brown root ro disease of casew

way two

As the fungus was re-isolated from the diseased wood, it is confirmed that P.noxius is the casual agent of the brown root ro disease of casew

way three

The fungus was re-isolated from the diseased wood, therefore it is confirmed that P.noxius is the casual agent of the brown root ro disease of casew

way four

The fungus was re-isolated from the diseased wood. Therefore it is confirmed that P.noxius is the casual agent of the brown root ro disease of casew

way five

The fungus was too re-isolated from the diseased wood for it is confirmed that P.noxius is the casual agent of the brown root to ro disease of casew

way six

The fungus was not HUMID enough for it is confirmed that P.noxius is the casual agent of the brown root to ro disease of casew

way seven

It is confirmed that P.noxius is the casual agent of the brown root ro disease of casew because the fungus was re-isolated from the diseased wood.

Source : Brown Root Disease Of Casew in West Nusa Tenggara : Distribution and Its casual Organism

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(1) 2004: 35)


RELATIONSHIP SHOWING

OPPOSITION


Study the two sentences bellow:

1. Recovered, plantlets cultured high percentage of survival.

2. The survival rate was not as hight as in kossas peat + soil.

The first sentence contains the words plantlets cultured”

The second sentence contains the words .in kossas peat + soil.”

The expressions of plantlets cultured”and .in kossas peat + soil.”are opposites of each other. The relationship between these two sentences is one of opposition.

These two sentence can be joined into a new sentence by using a single or paired conjunction showing opposition as shown in the seven ways below.

Example 1

1.

Recovered, plantlets cultured high percentage of survival but in kossas peat + soil the survival rate was not as hight as

2.

Even though/ Although/ Though recovered, plantlets cultured high percentage of survival, in kossas peat + soil the survival rate was not as hight as

3.

Recovered, plantlets cultured high percentage of survival but in kossas peat + soil anyway he survival rate was not as hight as.

4.

Recovered, plantlets cultured high percentage of survival but in kossas peat + soil still he survival rate was not as hight as.

5.

Recovered, plantlets cultured high percentage of survival yet in kossas peat + soil still he survival rate was not as hight as.

6.

Recovered, plantlets cultured high percentage of survival. Nevertheless/ Nonetheless/ However/ On the other hand/ In contrast/ On the contrary, in kossas peat + soil the survival rate was not as hight as

7.

Recovered, plantlets cultured high percentage of surviva, nevertheless/ nonetheless/ however/ on the other hand/ in contrast/ on the contrary, in kossas peat + soil the survival rate was not as hight as

Source : Effect of Premeble Vessel Closon And its Causal Organism.ure and icity In In Vitro Culture

(Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(1) 2004: 17)

Example 2

1.

Leaf analysis can be used as a guide to diagnose nutritionalstatus and as a fertilizer recommendation tool for mangosteen plant, but sampling technique of standard leaf sampled should be established accurately.

2.

Even though/ Although/ Though Leaf analysis can be used as a guide to diagnose nutritionalstatus and as a fertilizer recommendation tool for mangosteen plant, sampling technique of standard leaf sampled should be established accurately.

3.

Leaf analysis can be used as a guide to diagnose nutritionalstatus and as a fertilizer recommendation tool for mangosteen plant but sampling technique of standard leaf sampled l anyway should be established accurately.

4.

Leaf analysis can be used as a guide to diagnose nutritionalstatus and as a fertilizer recommendation tool for mangosteen plant but sampling technique of standard leaf sampled l still should be established accurately.

5.

Leaf analysis can be used as a guide to diagnose nutritionalstatus and as a fertilizer recommendation tool for mangosteen plant yet sampling technique of standard leaf sampled l still should be established accurately.

6.

Leaf analysis can be used as a guide to diagnose nutritionalstatus and as a fertilizer recommendation tool for mangosteen plant. Nevertheless/ Nonetheless/ However/ On the other hand/ In contrast/ On the contrary, sampling technique of standard leaf sampled should be established accurately.

7.

Leaf analysis can be used as a guide to diagnose nutritionalstatus and as a fertilizer recommendation tool for mangosteen plant, nevertheless/ nonetheless/ however/ on the other hand/ in contrast/ on the contrary, sampling technique of standard leaf sampled should be established accurately.

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008: 95)

Horizontal Scroll: CHAPTER  NINE

RELATIONSHIP SHOWING

EXAMPLIFICATION


Stydy the two sentences below:

1. Site-specific is a term that refers to treating the smallest possible area as a single element.

2. Rather than treating a whole field with herbicide because of a few isolated weed infestations, site-specific management calls for treatment of only those areas.A site is simply the smallest unit the farmer can manage with the tools available, whether that is a 100 square foot area or an individual plant.

The first sentence is a statement that weathering is mostly by physical means.

The second sentence is an example of the statement in sentence 1.

The relationship between these two sentences is one of exemplification.

These two sentences can be joined into a new sentence by using a single or paired conjunction showing exemplification as shown in the four ways below.

1.

Site-specific is a term that refers to treating the smallest possible area as a single element. For example, rather than treating a whole field with herbicide because of a few isolated weed infestations, site-specific management calls for treatment of only those areas.A site is simply the smallest unit the farmer can manage with the tools available, whether that is a 100 square foot area or an individual plant.

2.

Site-specific is a term that refers to treating the smallest possible area as a single element, for example, rather than treating a whole field with herbicide because of a few isolated weed infestations, site-specific management calls for treatment of only those areas.A site is simply the smallest unit the farmer can manage with the tools available, whether that is a 100 square foot area or an individual plant.

3.

Site-specific is a term that refers to treating the smallest possible area as a single element. For instance, rather than treating a whole field with herbicide because of a few isolated weed infestations, site-specific management calls for treatment of only those areas.A site is simply the smallest unit the farmer can manage with the tools available, whether that is a 100 square foot area or an individual plant.

4.

Site-specific is a term that refers to treating the smallest possible area as a single element, for instance, rather than treating a whole field with herbicide because of a few isolated weed infestations, site-specific management calls for treatment of only those areas.A site is simply the smallest unit the farmer can manage with the tools available, whether that is a 100 square foot area or an individual plant..

Source : Site-Specific" - What Does It Mean Betsy Pfister , Red Hen Systems, Inc.
December 01, 1998

Example 2

  1. Indonesia belongs to the largest cocoa producing countries in the world
  2. in sulawesi there are 75 % responsible for most of the countries cocoa production

1.

Indonesia belongs to the largest cocoa producing countries in the world

in sulawesi there are 75 % responsible for most of the countries cocoa production

.

1.

Indonesia belongs to the largest cocoa producing countries in the world. For example in sulawesi there are 75 % responsible for most of the countries cocoa production

2.

Indonesia belongs to the largest cocoa producing countries in the world, for example in sulawesi there are 75 % responsible for most of the countries cocoa production

3.

Indonesia belongs to the largest cocoa producing countries in the world. For instance in sulawesi there are 75 % responsible for most of the countries cocoa production

4.

Indonesia belongs to the largest cocoa producing countries in the world, for instance in sulawesi there are 75 % responsible for most of the countries cocoa production

Source : Colorimetric Measurements Of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao)

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 3(2), 2002: 52


RELATIONSHIP SHOWING

EXAPLANATION


Look at the following statements, and see how the paired conjunctions, such as “that is to say”, “in other words”, “this indicates that”, and “this means that” are used to express a relationship of explanation.

Study the three examples below to understand how paired conjunctions can be used to realize a relationship showing explanation.

1.

Test on simple linear regression coefficient aimed at testing the significance of correlation between leaf P concentration and yield.

Leaf P concentration highly affected or did not affect plant yield.

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 101)

Answer:

Test on simple linear regression coefficient aimed at testing the significance of correlation between leaf P concentration and yield. That is to say,/ In other words,/ This indicates that,/ This means that leaf P concentration highly affected or did not affect plant yield.

2.

This could be seen from the highest yield on Purwakarta mangosteen which leaf P concentration was higher than other two locations.

The higher the leaf P concentration, the higher the yield.

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 100

Answer:

This could be seen from the highest yield on Purwakarta mangosteen which leaf P concentration was higher than other two locations.That is to say,/ In other words,/ This indicates that,/ This means that the higher the leaf P concentration, the higher the yield.


RELATIONSHIP SHOWING ADITTION :

REINFORCEMENT + SIMILARITY


There are instances in which the writer of an article wants to tell his readers that some information needs to be added to the information he has stated earlier. In adding the information, the writer mau use:

reinforcement, or

similarity.

You will have a clearer understanding about the difference between the two if you follow closely the explanations below.

ADDITION SHOWING REINFORCEMENT:

Example :

Rounded Rectangle: Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p. Hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value. Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production  ( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 100

EXAMPLE OF REINFORCEMENT :

· Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p.

· Hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value.

1

Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p. Furthermore, hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value.

2

Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p. In addition, hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value.

3

Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p, in addition, hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value.

4

Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p, moreover, hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value.

5

Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p. Moreover, hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value.

6

Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p, furthermore, hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value.

7

Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p. Further, hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value.

8

Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p, further, hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value.

9

Correlation value obtained is a sample correlation value, which is estimated value from coefficient of population correlation symbolized by p, also hypothesis test was done on unknown population correlation coefficient based on estimation of sample correlation coefficient value.

ADDITION SHOWING SIMILARITY:

The writer, in this case, tries to inform his readers that there is more than one subject having the same characteristic/ attribute or property. And to realize this, he provides his reader with additional information about the point he has made earlier about the attribute by adding more subjects bearing the same attribute.

Study the two following instances.

Example :

Rounded Rectangle: In Ciamis  and surondings, only pathotyype VIII was inditified, whereas in Cirebon and surondings, 3 isolates were pathotype III, 3 isolates were pathotype IV, and 25 isolates were pathotype IV. Pathotype groups were found in Subang and surondings where pathotype III, IV, and VIII were identified.  Source :  Pathotype Profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae Isolates     From The Rice Ecosystem in Java (Indonesian Journal of Agriculture Science 5(2) 2004: 64)

EXAMPLE TWO :

· In Ciamis and surondings, only pathotyype VIII was inditified, whereas in Cirebon and surondings, 3 isolates were pathotype III, 3 isolates were pathotype IV, and 25 isolates were pathotype IV.

· Pathotype groups were found in Subang and surondings where pathotype III, IV, and VIII were identified.

1

In Ciamis and surondings, only pathotyype VIII was inditified, whereas in Cirebon and surondings, 3 isolates were pathotype III, 3 isolates were pathotype IV, and 25 isolates were pathotype IV. Similarry pathotype groups were found in Subang and surondings where pathotype III, IV, and VIII were identified.

2

In Ciamis and surondings, only pathotyype VIII was inditified, whereas in Cirebon and surondings, 3 isolates were pathotype III, 3 isolates were pathotype IV, and 25 isolates were pathotype IV. Likely, pathotype groups were found in Subang and surondings where pathotype III, IV, and VIII were identified..

3

In Ciamis and surondings, only pathotyype VIII was inditified, whereas in Cirebon and surondings, 3 isolates were pathotype III, 3 isolates were pathotype IV, and 25 isolates were pathotype IV. In the same way, pathotype groups were found in Subang and surondings where pathotype III, IV, and VIII were identified..

4

In Ciamis and surondings, only pathotyype VIII was inditified, whereas in Cirebon and surondings, 3 isolates were pathotype III, 3 isolates were pathotype IV, and 25 isolates were pathotype IV. Pathotype groups also were found in Subang and surondings where pathotype III, IV, and VIII were identified..

1 ATTRBUTES SIMILARITY : ONE ATTRIBUTE - > 1 SUBJECTS " v:shapes="_x0000_s1139" height="133" width="504">


RELATIONSHIP SHOWING CONDITIONS


In daily life, one may observe symptoms in the environment, based on which he makes a diagnosis. These are all made in his head. When he wants to communicate the symtomps he observed with other people he needs to formulate the symtomps into a well-worded observation. Similarly counts for the diagnosis made. Look at the following illustration:

In terms of cellular respiration people may say that plants obtain chemical energy from fuel molecules.

In the surrounding nature, one may observe the following SYMPTOMS:

· Mangosteens, stunted in productivity

· Fruits, quality in low

Still in his mind, he can make a DIAGNOSIS:

· soil, deficient in nutrient.

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 : 95

To make other people understand what he has in mind, he needs to formulate the symtomps and diagnosis into proper words; he needs to verbalize his thoughts. And this is what he can do:

- he will formulate the symtomps into an OBSERVATION as follows:

the mangosteens are stunted in productivity and the fruits are quality in low

- he will formulate the diagnosis into a CONCLUSION as follows:

§ THIS SHOWS THAT the soil is deficient in nutrient.

§ THIS INDICATES THAT the soil is deficient in nutrient.

§ THIS IS AN INDICATION the soil is deficient in nutrient.

§ THIS IS A SIGN THAT the soil is deficient in nutrient.

§ THIS MEANS THAT the soil is deficient in nutrient.

§ WE MAY CONCLUDE THAT the soil is deficient in nutrient.

§ SO the soil is deficient in nutrient.

§ THEREFORE the soil is deficient in nutrient.

Note that in verbalizing his conclusion he can use the single or paired conjunctions showing explanation (see chapter 10) or consequence (see chapter 7).

In generalizing the conclision drawn based on the observation(s), he can say:

- If the mangosteens are stunted in productivity and the fruits are quality in low, the soil is deficient in nutrient.

- If the mangosteens are stunted in productivity and the fruits are quality in low, then the soil is deficient in nutrient.

- When the mangosteens are stunted in productivity and the fruits are quality in low, the soil is deficient in nutrient.

From the generalization made based on the observation and conclusion, he can make

recommendations and predictions, as shown below.

RECOMENDATION

the mangosteens are stunted in productivity and the fruits are quality in low

This shown that the soil is deficient in nutrients

This deficiency should be corrected by adding nutrients a fertilizer to the mangosteen's plants.

the mangosteens are stunted in productivity and the fruits are quality in low

This shown that the soil is deficient in nutrients

This deficiency can be corrected by adding nutrients a fertilizer to the mangosteen's plants.

PREDICTION

If a soil is deficient in nutrients, the mangosteens will be stunted in productivity and the fruits are quality in low .

This deficiency should be corrected by adding nutrients a fertilizer to the mangosteen's plants.

If a soil is deficient in nutrients, the mangosteens will be stunted in productivity and the fruits are quality in low .

This deficiency can be corrected by adding nutrients a fertilizer to the mangosteen's plants.

If a soil is deficient in nutrients, the mangosteens will be stunted in productivity and the fruits are quality in low .

In order to correct this deficiency, nutrients a fertilizer should be added to the mangosteen's plants.

If a soil is deficient in nutrients, the mangosteens will be stunted in productivity and the fruits [will be quality in low.

In order to correct this deficiency, nutrients a fertilizer should be added to mangosteen's plants.

If a soil is deficient in nutrient, the mangosteens will be stunted in productivity and the fruits [will be quality in low.

In order to remedy this deficiency, nutrients a fertilizer should be added to the mangosteen's plants.

If a soil is deficient in nutrient, the mangosteens will be stunted in productivity and the fruits [will be quality in low.

In order to remedy this deficiency, nutrients a fertilizer can be added to the mangosteen's plants.

.

ALWAYS KEEP IN MIND

Oval: the word IF is only used in making generalizations + predictions


COMPARATIVE SENTENCES


Comparative sentences are used to compare the characteristics of two or more subjects. The attributes of the subjects are compared in several ways, some of which are shown in the examples below.

Concentration pH of soils collected from three mangosteen orchards in West Java.


Location

pH KCL (°C)

pH H2O (°C)

1.

Purwakarta

3.68

4.64

2.

Tasikmalaya

3.71

4.74

3.

Bogor

3.43

4.40

Source : Corellation Test Of Leaf Phosphorus Nutrient With Mangosteen Production

( Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 1(2), 2008 : 98

Comparisons that can be made in terms of their thr content are:

1.

Purwakarta

a.

The percentage of Purwakarta in a pH KCL is lower than that in a pH H2O

b.

The percentage of Purwakarta in a pH H2O is higher than that in a pH KCL

c.

The Purwakarta content of in a pH KCL is lower than that in a pH H2O

d.

The Purwakarta content of in a pH H2O is higher than that in a pH KCL

e.

A pH KCL has a lower Purwakarta content than a pH H2O

f.

A pH H2O has a lower Purwakarta content than a pH KCL

g.

The Purwakarta content of a pH KCL is 3.68°C whereas that of a pH H2O is 4.64°C

h.

The Purwakarta content of a pH H2O is 4.64°C whereas that of of a pH KCL is 3.68°C

3.

Tasikmalaya

a.

The percentage of Tasikmalaya in a pH KCL is lower than that in a pH H2O

b.

The percentage of Tasikmalaya in a pH H2O is higher than that in a pH KCL

c.

The Tasikmalaya content of in a pH KCL is lower than that in a pH H2O

d.

The Tasikmalaya content of in a pH H2O is higher than that in a pH KCL

e.

A pH KCL has a lower Tasikmalaya content than a pH H2O

f.

A pH H2O has a lower Tasikmalaya content than a pH KCL

g.

The Tasikmalaya content of a pH KCL is 3.71°C whereas that of a pH H2O is 4.74°C

h.

The Tasikmalaya content of a pH H2O is 4.74°C whereas that of of a pH KCL is 3.71°C

3.

Bogor

a.

The percentage of Bogor in a pH KCL is lower than that in a pH H2O

b.

The percentage of Bogor in a pH H2O is higher than that in a pH KCL

c.

The Bogor content of in a pH KCL is lower than that in a pH H2O

d.

The Bogor content of in a pH H2O is higher than that in a pH KCL

e.

A pH KCL has a lower Bogor content than a pH H2O

f.

A pH H2O has a lower Bogor content than a pH KCL

g.

The Bogor content of a pH KCL is 3.43°C whereas that of a pH H2O is 4.40°C

h.

The Bogor content of a pH H2O is 4.40°C whereas that of of a pH KCL is 3.43°C